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The topography is generally flat with many small crater hills and mountains.
Debre Zeit is located at 8°44’latitude and 39°02’ longitude with an elevation of 1900 m.a.s.l.The feeding practice was designed in such a way that it gives continuous growth, with feed being offered in-group, regardless of breed.Hay and maize silage constituted the major proportion of tef) straw was substituted. In many instances however, there were feeding irregularities over the years.Both breed and period (year-groups) have significant effects on lactation length; however the differences between parity and season of calving were not significant.Lactation length ranged from 279 days for to 362 days for Holstein Friesian cows.Milking cows were supplemented with concentrate composed of wheat abyssinica) while they were milked.
The amount depended on the volume of milk from each cow.
Subsequently, both parental cows and their first female offspring were assigned to F bulls to generate FBa, FFBa and FFFBa crosses.
Pregnant FBo crossbred heifers (F1) bought from Abernossa ranch in the Ethiopian Rift Valley, were also included in the same year.
The FBo crosses were further upgraded to FFBo and FFFBo crosses.
Breed groups and number of cows included in the analysis are indicated in Table 1.
Zeit Agricultural Research Centre launched a breeding program with Local and Holstein Friesian to upgrade their milk production performances and to test the performance of pure (Barca and Friesian) and upgraded animals.